Top 7 Disasters

What are the top 7 disasters for the planet earth? is it Gamma Rays? Black Holes? War? Tornados? Earthquakes? Climate Change? I will list top 7 i think are the most disasteress ones that threaten earth. Some of them can happen in are time, some can happen with are kids in future time.. some may not ever happen at all.


7) Gamma Rays

Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most luminous electromagnetic events occurring in the universe since the Big Bang. They are flashes of gamma rays emanating from seemingly random places in deep space at random times. The duration of a gamma-ray burst is typically a few seconds, but can range from a few milliseconds to several minutes, and the initial burst is usually followed by a longer-lived "afterglow" emitting at longer wavelengths (X-ray, ultraviolet, optical, infrared, and radio). Gamma-ray bursts are detected by orbiting satellites about two to three times per week. Most observed GRBs appear to be collimated emissions caused by the collapse of the core of a rapidly rotating, high-mass star into a black hole. A subclass of GRBs (the "short" bursts) appear to originate from a different process, the leading theory being the collision of neutron stars orbiting in a binary system. All observed GRBs have originated from outside our own galaxy; though a related class of phenomena, SGR flares, are associated with galactic magnetars. The sources of most GRBs have been billions of light years away. A nearby gamma ray burst could possibly cause mass extinctions on Earth. Though the short duration of a gamma ray burst would limit the immediate damage to life, a nearby burst might alter atmospheric chemistry by reducing the ozone layer and generating acidic nitrogen oxides. These atmospheric changes could ultimately cause severe damage to the biosphere. Is this Ray possible to kill us anytime soon? Not likely.. But its not impossible to happen.


6) Black Hole

A black hole is a theoretical region of space in which the gravitational field is so powerful that nothing, not even electromagnetic radiation (e.g. visible light), can escape its pull after having fallen past its event horizon. The term derives from the fact that the absorption of visible light renders the hole's interior invisible, and indistinguishable from the black space around it. Despite its interior being invisible, a black hole may reveal its presence through an interaction with matter that lies in orbit outside its event horizon. For example, a black hole may be perceived by tracking the movement of a group of stars that orbit its center. Alternatively, one may observe gas (from a nearby star, for instance) that has been drawn into the black hole. The gas spirals inward, heating up to very high temperatures and emitting large amounts of radiation that can be detected from earthbound and earth-orbiting telescopes. Such observations have resulted in the general scientific consensus that—barring a breakdown in our understanding of nature—black holes do exist in our universe. The idea of an object with gravity strong enough to prevent light from escaping was proposed in 1783 by John Michell, an amateur British astronomer. In 1795, Pierre-Simon Laplace, a French physicist independently came to the same conclusion. Black holes, as currently understood, are described by the general theory of relativity. This theory predicts that when a large enough amount of mass is present in a sufficiently small region of space, all paths through space are warped inwards towards the center of the volume, preventing all matter and radiation within it from escaping. While general relativity describes a black hole as a region of empty space with a point-like singularity at the center and an event horizon at the outer edge, the description changes when the effects of quantum mechanics are taken into account. Research on this subject indicates that, rather than holding captured matter forever, black holes may slowly leak a form of thermal energy called Hawking radiation and may well have a finite life. However, the final, correct description of black holes, requiring a theory of quantum gravity, is unknown.

What would happen if a black hole hit us?

Well, what would happen is the Earth will slowly approach the black hole, and as it does this the stuff on the earth (buildings, houses, and yes people) will break apart into small pieces as it approaches the black hole. Then, sooner or later the Earth will be so close to it, that the Earth will itself break into pieces. There is no escape of course. There is no destination that it's taking you to, so you're better off dying than surviving (plus there's no oxygen in space). Likly to happen? No, which is why this one is tied with the Gamma Rays. But again not impossible.


5) intelligent machine

It's fascinating to consider the possibility of robots becoming as prominent as humans have on Earth; however, if intelligent machines are to become the inheritors of the biosphere, it will occur in a way that will take almost everyone by surprise. We won't wake up one day to a robot-run planet, but rather, to a planet where we have the option to become robots ourselves. It's a common mistake to believe that robots with human-level intelligence will just suddenly spring into the picture thanks to Hollywood movies, but long before we have the capability to create artificial intelligence on par with humans, first we will perfect the technology that allows us to augment our own biology. Once our nanotechnology is sufficiently advanced, we'll have the option to inject nanobots into our bloodstream where they will interact with our biology at the cellular level. These nanobots would help keep us alive from the inside by combating disease with cellular precision and even reversing the effects of aging. Once we integrate our technology with our biology this will represent the first stage of the "robot takeover" of Earth. Is there a difference between robots taking over the world and robots taking over humans? Perhaps in the beginning. But at what point do we stop calling ourselves "human?" My prediction is that the first total machine intelligence that exists will be the result of a human slowly replacing his or her biology with technology. While gradually "upgrading" body parts over time this person will retain human consciousness, experiencing reality as would any "normal" person, but simply through an enhanced physical medium far superior to a biological body. So, if a majority of Earth's population were to undergo such a transition, the world would in effect become controlled by robots. The interesting part of the story is that those robots would have been human at one point. In my view, this shift in human existence will be an inevitable result of the profound technological evolution that has long since overshadowed that of living organisms. The coming merger of man and machine may be called "unnatural," but what could be more natural than wanting to sustain one's own existence as optimally and for as long as possible? That's what life does. Humanity has had the ability to manipulate his environment for thousands of years. We change the natural environment into technology as we see fit and we're just as much a part of that environment. Soon, we will take our technology by the hand and let it carry us as fast as it has been moving, and even faster in the decades to come. First, we became masters of our surroundings. Next, we will become master's of ourselves. Then, we will be true masters of physical reality. So no this is not highly going to happen, but again not impossible.


4) Super Volcano

A supervolcano or super volcanic eruption is a volcanic eruption which is orders of magnitude greater than any volcano in historic times (generally accepted to be greater than 200 cubic kilometres). This kind of eruption is typically sufficient to cause a long-lasting change to weather (such as the triggering of an ice age) sufficient to threaten the extinction of species, and cover huge areas with lava and ash. Listed in bold is what would happen if one was to erupt.. possible to happen of course.. anytime soon? Doubtful


3) Asteroid

Asteroids, sometimes called minor planets or planetoids, are bodies—primarily of the inner Solar System—that are smaller than planets but larger than meteoroids, but exclude comets. The distinction between asteroids and comets is made on visual appearance when discovered: Comets show a perceptible coma while asteroids do not. Next Asteroid due to come close is called Apophis, dued on April 13th 2029 to kiss are ass, then due to come back around later in 2036.. on the same date, its not likely this Asteroid would hit us.. and not likely Apophis will hurt us, since its not a very big Asteroid, but what happens if a bigger Asteroid hit us?


What happens if a Asteroid hits us?

For an asteroid 10 km in diameter, it doesn't matter where it hits, ocean or dry land. Remember that the depest point in the oceans is in the Mariana Trench, and is only 11 km deep! Also, a typical speed for meteorites is around 30 kilometers per second. An asteroid 10 kilometers across is so massive that it's very hard to slow it down. Unlike smaller meteors, it will not be slowed down much by air friction. It will punch through the atmosphere like it's hardly even there. When it reaches the surface, it will smack so hard that it won't matter if it strikes ocean or land. The imapact with the earth's crust will finally stop the asteroid. The energy of the impact will vaporize the asteroid and a large amount of the Earth's crust, creating a crater more than one hundred kilometers across, throwing all that rock into the air. Some of this debris will be going so fast that it will fly right out of the Earth's atmosphere and go into orbit around the Earth. Most of the debris will rain back down on the Earth--every part of the Earth, not just near the impact site--heating the atmopshere until it's like the inside of an oven, triggering forest fires and cooking anything that isn't sheltered underground. The combination of dust from the impact and soot from the forest fires will remain in the Earth's atmosphere for a year or so, blocking the light of the Sun. Without sunlight, much of the Earth's plantlife, on land and in the sea, will die. Many species of animals--including the human race, if we aren't both lucky and resourceful!--will die out, either in the initial catastrophe, or in the ensuing years due to lack of food and the general devastation of the environment. The last time this happened was 65 million years ago, when an asteroid struck the Earth, creating the Chicxulub Crater in Mexico and causing the extinction of the dinosaurs. On average, an asteroid this size strikes the Earth every 50 to 100 million years.


2) Nuclear War

Nuclear warfare, or atomic warfare, is battle in which nuclear weapons are used. This has only happened twice - the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by the United States of America against the Empire of Japan very shortly before the end of the Pacific War in World War II. Today the term usually refers to confrontations in which opposing sides are both armed with nuclear weapons. Compared to conventional warfare, nuclear warfare is much more destructive in both range coverage and extent of damage, and has long-term, severe, damaging effects that can last decades, centuries, or even millennia after the initial attack. Nuclear war is considered to bear existential risk for civilization on earth.


1) Plague

Plague is a disease caused by Yersinia pestis. This bacterium is found in mammals (prairie dogs, rats, squirrels, rabbits, cats) and their fleas in many areas around the world. Occasionally this organism infects humans. Usually fleas from the infected rodents carry the disease to humans. The World Health Organization reports 1,000 to 3,000 cases of plague worldwide every year. An average of 5 to 15 cases occur each year in the western United States. About 14% of all cases of plague are fatal. There are two different forms of this disease; bubonic plague and pneumonic plague. Most naturally occurring cases of plague are the bubonic form. Pneumonic plague is very rare. Figure 9 shows the life cycle of this organism and how it can be acquired. Yersinia pestis is primarily a rodent pathogen, with humans being an accidental host when bitten by an infected rat flea. The flea draws viable Y. pestis organisms into its intestinal tract. These organisms multiply in the flea and block the flea's proventriculus. Some Y. pestis in the flea are then regurgitated when the flea gets its next blood meal thus transferring the infection to a new host. While growing in the flea, Y. pestis loses its capsular layer. Most of the organisms are phagocytosed and killed by the polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the human host. A few bacilli are taken up by tissue macrophages. The macrophages are unable to kill Y. pestis and provide a protected environment for the organisms to synthesize their virulence factors. The organisms then kill the macrophage and are released into the extracellular environment, where they resist phagocytosis (YopH and YopE; Yersinia outer membrane protein) by the polymorphs. The Y. pestis quickly spread to the draining lymph nodes, which become hot, swollen, tender, and hemorrhagic. This gives rise to the characteristic black buboes of bubonic plague. The incubation time of this form of plague is 2-6 days. Other symptoms of this form of plague include extreme exhaustion, high fever, and low blood pressure resulting in shock, convulsions, and death. Within hours of the initial flea bite, the infection spills out into the bloodstream, leading to infection of the liver, spleen, and lungs. The patient develops a severe bacterial pneumonia, exhaling large numbers of viable organisms into the air during coughing fits. 50 to 60 percent of untreated patients will die if untreated. As the epidemic of bubonic plague develops (especially under conditions of severe overcrowding, malnutrition, and heavy flea infestation), it eventually shifts into a predominately pneumonic form (pneumonic plague). Once a person develops pneumonic plague they can infect other people. When someone with pneumonic plague coughs organisms in the lungs are expelled into the air. If an uninfected person inhales enough organisms they will develop pneumonic plague in 1-3 days. If not treated early the death rate can be as high as 70%. If untreated the mortality rate is 100 percent. While in the bloodstream the bacteria also stimulate the immune system resulting in massive clotting of the blood and fever. The blood clots lodge in small blood vessels causing damage to the person’s organs, fingers, toes and nose. In time the person will run out of clotting factors and other responses will cause the fluid part of the blood to leak out of the blood vessels. When this happens the person will go into shock due to low blood pressure. Symptoms include shock, confusion, convulsions, bleeding from the nose and bowel, small red spots that enlarge bluish discoloration of the limbs, toes, fingers and ears, gangrene of the fingers, toes, ears and nose and death.


0) Global Warming

Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of the Earth's near-surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century and its projected continuation. Global surface temperature increased 0.74 ± 0.18 °C (1.33 ± 0.32 °F) during the 100 years ending in 2005. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes that most of the temperature increase since the mid-twentieth century is "very likely" due to the increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations. Natural phenomena such as solar variation and volcanoes probably had a small warming effect from pre-industrial times to 1950 and a small cooling effect from 1950 onward. These basic conclusions have been endorsed by at least 30 scientific societies and academies of science, including all of the national academies of science of the major industrialized countries. While individual scientists have voiced disagreement with these findings, the overwhelming majority of scientists working on climate change agree with the IPCC's main conclusions. Climate model projections indicate that global surface temperature will likely rise a further 1.1 to 6.4 °C (2.0 to 11.5 °F) during the twenty-first century. The uncertainty in this estimate comes about from differing estimates of future greenhouse gas emissions and from the use of models with differing climate sensitivity. Another uncertainty is how warming and related changes will vary from region to region around the globe. Although most studies focus on the period up to 2100, warming is expected to continue for more than a thousand years even if greenhouse gas levels are stabilized. This results from the large heat capacity of the oceans. Increasing global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation, likely including an expanse of the subtropical desert regions. Other likely effects include increases in the intensity of extreme weather events, changes in agricultural yields, modifications of trade routes, glacier retreat, species extinctions and increases in the ranges of disease vectors. Most national governments have signed and ratified the Kyoto Protocol aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Political and public debate continues regarding what, if any, action should be taken to reduce or reverse future warming or to adapt to its expected consequences.